The Sintashta culture is widely regarded as the origin of the Indo-Iranian languages. The earliest known chariots have been found in Sintashta burials, and the culture is considered a strong candidate for the origin of the technology, which spread throughout the Old World and played an important role in ancient warfare. Sintashta settlements are also remarkable for the intensity of copper mining and bronze metallurgy carried out there, which is unusual for a steppe culture
Evidence of wheat, copper and millet gives clues to the first connections between West and East were made in the Bronze Age and archaeologists are finding clues of the specific routes that were taken. A current best guess is for a steppe connection at the beginning of the third millennium BC (3000 BCE) and a ‘silk road’ connection at the end of the 3rd millennium (2000 BCE). However, a much earlier connection (the sixth millennium BC) is still arguable
Babur (1483-1530) was the ultimate founder and first Emperor of the Mughal dynasty in the Indian subcontinent. He was a direct descendant of Emperor Tamerlane the Great (Timur) from what is now Uzbekistan. Babur was born in Andijan, today in Uzbekistan and ruled the Fergana Valley from nearby Osh . He pondered his future on Salaiman Mountain atop which he constructed a mosque and concluded that the confines of the Fergana would cramp his aspirations as a descendant of famous conquering warrior princes.
The Persian-speaking Tajik minorities of Central Asia, who still form the majority of the population in the picturesque Silk Route cities of Samarkand and Bukhara, are living witnesses to the Iranian presence in the heart of Asia which dates back to prehistoric times.
The Mughal Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. The founder of empire, Babur, was born in Osh. It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan (through his son Chagatai Khan) and Tamerlane, but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian.
The Sasanian Empire was the last kingdom of the Persian Empire before the rise of Islam and included parts of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Transoxiana. The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical period
The Achaemenid Empire expanded as far as the Oxus today's Amu Daryai River in Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Afghanistan, in and the Jaxartes today's Syr Darya River in Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Kazakhstan to the north and north-east.