China, History, Horse Back, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan

Mongol Empire and Division

Mongol Empire (1206–1240s CE) Genghis Khan united the Mongol tribes of the steppes and became Great Khan in 1206. Genghis Khan and his successors expanded the Mongol empire across Asia. Under the reign of Genghis' third son, Ögedei Khan, the Mongols destroyed the weakened Jin dynasty in 1234, conquering most of northern China.[ Ögedei offered… Continue reading Mongol Empire and Division

China, Chuy, History, Horse Back, Kyrgyzstan

Turkic (Göktürks) Khaganate (552 CE –744 CE)

n medieval Inner Asia. Under the leadership of Bumin Qaghan (d. 552) and his sons, the Ashina succeeded the Rouran Khaganate as the hegemonic power of the Mongolian Plateau and rapidly expanded their territories in Central Asia. Initially the Khaganate would use Sogdian (See my post about these interesting traders) in official and numismatic functions. It was the first Turkic state to use the name Türk politically and is known for the first written record of any Turkic language in history. The first Turkic Khaganate collapsed in 581, after which followed a series of conflicts and civil wars which separated the polity into the Eastern Turkic Khaganate and Western Turkic Khaganate.

Andijan, China, Fergana Valley, History, Jalal-Abad, Kashgar, Khujand, Kokand, Kyrgyzstan, Osh, Osh Region, Russia, Tajikistan, Uncategorized, Uzbekistan

Khanate of Kokand

The Khanate of Kokand  (sometimes spelled Khoqand) was a Central Asian state in Fergana Valley that existed from 1709–1876 within the territory of modern Kyrgyzstan, eastern Uzbekistan  and  Tajikistan, and southeastern Kazakhstan. Kokand  is located in eastern Uzbekistan, at the southwestern edge of the Fergana Valley.   It is the main transportation junction in the Fergana Valley and has a population of about 200,000 .  The city lies… Continue reading Khanate of Kokand

Almaty, Bishkek, Bukhara, China, Chuy, Fergana Valley, History, Horse Back, Kazakhstan, Kokand, Kyrgyzstan, Osh, Samarkind, Taraz, Tian Shan Mountains, Trans Alay Range, Uzbekistan

Russian Conquest of Central Asia

The Russian Conquest of Central Asia took place in the second half of the nineteenth century. The land that became Russian Turkestan and later Soviet Central Asia is now divided between Kazakhstan in the north, Uzbekistan across the center, Kyrgyzstan in the east, Tajikistan in the southeast and Turkmenistan in the southwest. The area was called Turkestan because most of its inhabitants spoke Turkic languages with the exception of Tajikistan, which speaks an Iranian language.

China, Chuy, Fergana Valley, History, Horse Back, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Osh Region, Prehistory, Russia, Silk Road, Tajikistan, Tour, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan

Bronze Age in Central Asia

Evidence of wheat, copper and millet gives clues to the first connections between West and East were made in the Bronze Age and archaeologists are finding clues of the specific routes that were taken. A current best guess is for a steppe connection at the beginning of the third millennium BC (3000 BCE) and a ‘silk road’ connection at the end of the 3rd millennium (2000 BCE).  However, a much earlier connection (the sixth millennium BC) is still arguable

Bukhara, China, Chuy, History, Kashgar, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Religion, Samarkind, Silk Road, Tian Shan Mountains

Protectorate General to Pacify the West

The Protectorate General to Pacify the West, or Anxi Protectorate (640 CE–790 CE) was a protectorate established by the Tang Dynasty in 640 to control the Tarim Basin.  The head office was first established at the prefecture of Xi, now known as Turpan, but was later shifted to Qiuci (Kucha) The Four Garrisons of Anxi in Kucha, Khotan, Kashgar, and Karashahr were installed between 648 and 658 as garrisons under the western protectorate. In 659 Sogh (Chuy Region), Ferghana, Tashkent, Bukhara, Samarkand, Balkh, Herat, Kashmir, the Pamirs, Tokharistan, and Kabul all submitted to the protectorate under Emperor Gaozong of Tang.