Transoxiania (also spelled Transoxana), known in Arabic sources as Mā warāʼ an-Nahr [ˈmaː waˈraːʔ anˈnahr] – 'what is beyond the [Oxus] river') and in Persian as Farārūd —'beyond the [Amudarya] river'), is the ancient name used for the portion of Central Asia corresponding approximately with modern-day Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, southern Kyrgyzstan, and southwest Kazakhstan. Geographically, it is the region between the Amu Darya (Ancient Greek: Oxus and Syr Darya rivers. The area had been known… Continue reading Transoxania
Sasanian Empire (224 CE – 651 CE)
The Sasanian Empire was the last kingdom of the Persian Empire before the rise of Islam and included parts of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Transoxiana. The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical period
The First Council of Ephesus in 431 and the Council of Chalcedon in 451 condemned Nestorius and his doctrine, which emphasized the radical distinctness between Christ's human and divine natures. That forced a breach between the churches that defended Nestorius and the state church of the Roman Empire, which caused the Church of the East, the Christian church of Sassanid Persia, to become… Continue reading Nestorians
Achaemenid Empire (550 BCE–330 BCE)
The Achaemenid Empire expanded as far as the Oxus today's Amu Daryai River in Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Afghanistan, in and the Jaxartes today's Syr Darya River in Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Kazakhstan to the north and north-east.
Protectorate General to Pacify the West
The Protectorate General to Pacify the West, or Anxi Protectorate (640 CE–790 CE) was a protectorate established by the Tang Dynasty in 640 to control the Tarim Basin. The head office was first established at the prefecture of Xi, now known as Turpan, but was later shifted to Qiuci (Kucha) The Four Garrisons of Anxi in Kucha, Khotan, Kashgar, and Karashahr were installed between 648 and 658 as garrisons under the western protectorate. In 659 Sogh (Chuy Region), Ferghana, Tashkent, Bukhara, Samarkand, Balkh, Herat, Kashmir, the Pamirs, Tokharistan, and Kabul all submitted to the protectorate under Emperor Gaozong of Tang.